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From Marseille Apartments to Changdal,Planters during the Cobsi, seem to be addicted to a kind of“All four seas”Universal basic model,I hope to find an modal quotation、Standardized basic unit model。I think,The Marseille Apartments is like Cobb's miniature to spare the society to the single building.,And Changdaar is more like his residential area to simulate the operation of the city.,Both are to think about the problem of the city with the perspective of decomposition.。

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Chandikal planned plane

(one)“Urban planning is a simulation of collective will。” [1]

Systemism、Before the control is perfect,This simplified simulation method of Cobsye is unquestionable.,It is the product that combines formal rationality and functional rationality:Such as Chandidal with Brasilia。This highly rational planning thinking of different functions,The ambition and control of the national rulers in the development period is a shot:

①“Starting from the simplest and easiest object,Step by step, it is just the most complicated understanding.”(Cartesol),This type of mortic thinking has enhanced its uniform and operability;

②Whether it is a functional partition or a basic unit setting,It is beneficial to rulers to clearly understand and manage the city.,There is a similar“Community tax collection system”and“New urbanism”The relationship between [2] ,Or why is it similar to why?“Tailor,Confucianism”s reason。

back to China,I think the problem of urban planning in our country is similar to1956Yendikar,The reason,The two basic guidelines that both follow are based on rationalized cognitive methods.,by《Athens Charter》Guide,The planners do what simulates how the city works.、And how to use the plan(Mainly the design of material space)To contact different functional districts。So,Why is our simplified way of thinking today??I think it is because it is in the face of complex things.,People always expect to have a physics theorem、Mathematical formulas are clear、Clear general law to help cognition and understanding,exist《Athens Charter》The planners believe that this formula is“Substance space determinism with functional partition as core”,Afterwards《Machi Picchi Charter》When they have exposed their doubts and reflection of the previous thinking way,It does not overthrow rationalism。

However, these are always the discussion of theoretical level.,The theory and reality will always have similar Howard“Idyllic city”Theory“Letchworth” [3] Gap between the city。So I have always thought that Changdada and Brasilia were not only empty surface.。

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(two)“Although urban planners try to design and secure the city,But the city often escapes their mastery;It is always built and shaped by its residents.”。 [4]

people,This is considered to be“ The most no right and most is not worth painting ”Element,But with its uncertainty gives the city's polymity and diversity。Such as Changdal,existsector 1Inherently planned“Rock park(RockGarden)”Just because one is called Changde Indians spend more than ten years of decorating the entire park with the sculpture of the collected city garbage,This is the change of urban richness by factors other than planning.。Another example is the huge construction spacing of Changdadal accused,Later, the diversity of the city was also slowly enriched after the construction of the buildings of the residents.。

so,Utopia,I think the greater level of Changdaar is a prorating city.,The large spacing and broad squares left by the Kebu are more space and possibilities for future development.,As in the middle of the road design, the central isolation belt,It is a reserved land for future,If history is then pushed 100 year,People will definitely be further further evaluated by Changdadal.,I think it is not good for Changdada.,Nor is it a scale of it is not enough?,But people are all conclusions in the next morning.。

Because“people”This uncertain element,As long as you experience a long time,The planned city and the people living in people will have a relationship of interest.,Or the implantation of new buildings,Or the movement of new residents,Or is a rich landscape。For example, in Changdadar sector 45 middle(picture 2 right),There is also a reservation Burail Village ,Road Network、Favorable contrast to the new district。

Kebu provides the world with a city blueprint for the ultimate development of the future.,That is a time dimension frozen Baroque scenery, The blanks of the world and criticism,But the plan is always a simulation of future,A new city without residents is no life.,Only after a long enough person's influence, we can enrich the diversity of the city.。

So I think,Changdaal is not a midst of Utopia,But there are many probabilities of advanced cities,These possibilities are to be excited by the two times and the people.,This is a transformation from the Charter of Athens to the Charter of Machu。

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sector 21andsector 45flat

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[1] Transfer from the previous undergraduate class teacher Li Bin teacher

[2] The establishment surface of the new urbanism school is to inhibit the disorder of the suburbs of the United States.“City spread”,In essence, in order to help the government to better levy the taxation of suburban communities.,Reduce management costs and also improve government revenue,This is a vivid example of planning and governments.。(Prescribing to the self-study《Negative buildings》)

[3] First idyllic city Lechworth,It is established by Howard in the suburbs of London。

[4] 《Country perspective:How do those projects that try to improve human conditions fail?》 ( revised edition ) , [ beautiful ] James .C. Scott,Social Science Document Press P180