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Look at the world,The rural development models developed by each country in different periods according to their own national conditions have their own characteristics。By analyzing France、America、Japan、Spain、Characteristics of rural development in Ethiopia,Helps us better understand how it works and its impact。

  France:Ecological agriculture development strategy that respects nature

(usda rural development eligibility website)  Ecological Agriculture is an Effective Way to Develop and Revitalize Agriculture,Has the following characteristics:One is to integrate modern technology and management methods,Effectively integrate environmental advantages;The second is to realize a virtuous circle of agricultural industry ecology and economy;The third is to achieve sustainable development of agriculture and maximize economic benefits。201930s and 1940s,Driven by the overall ecological agriculture development trend in Europe,The French rural development model has embarked on the road of ecological agriculture development。At present, the ecological agriculture standard in France is the highest in Europe,And the development of ecological agriculture has been legalized、Institutionalize and organize。

(usda rural development eligibility website)  Initially, France followed countries such as Switzerland and the United Kingdom to develop ecological agriculture,with the Swiss Ecological Agriculture Federation、British Soil Association and other active exchanges,Learn from the successes of Switzerland and the UK。Later, when France was learning from the experience of other countries,Not content with imitating and following。So in2009year,When the EU implements new rules for ecological agriculture,France decides not to strictly enforce EU rules,in origin、More stringent regulations, etc.、Precise French standards。This pushes French agroecology towards higher quality development,Improve the competitiveness of ecological agricultural products in the international market。It is worth pointing out that,In the process of promoting the development of ecological agriculture, the French government,played a vital role。It is mainly manifested in:First,First introduce policies for trial implementation,special law,And take the formulation of the technical indicators of ecological agriculture labeling as the entry point,Guarantee the ecological production method and process of the product;second,Set up a special agricultural future development fund,Support the development of ecological agriculture;third,Send positive signals to the market by formulating development plans,Guide social resources to gather in ecological agriculture;fourth,Respect ecological balance and farmers' autonomy,Strictly limit the use of various substances with side effects。

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  America:“scale+Production area modernization”road to agricultural development

(usda rural development eligibility website)  U.S. arable land is vast,about one-fifth of its land area,The agricultural population is less than the total population of the country2%,therefore,The United States chose to scale、The road of modern agricultural development。USDA according to the climate of different regions、soil、natural factors such as light,Combined with the law of agricultural crop growth,Divide out10major agricultural areas such as wheat、Livestock and Agricultural Irrigation Areas。at scale、Under the guidance of the modernization development strategy,U.S. government uses agricultural resource endowments、Optimizing agricultural production factors,Vigorously support agricultural technology research and development and infrastructure construction,Scaled successfully、The road of modern agricultural development。

  Japan:people-oriented“One Village One Product”development concept

  1979Years of Japan are undergoing industrialization、The acceleration of urbanization。The gap between urban and rural areas in Japan was widening、County and village talent shortage、capital outflow、Industry shrinks,Agricultural development is facing a bottleneck。To improve the vitality of rural areas、Revitalize the rural economy,At that time, the governor of Oita Prefecture, Hiramatsu Morihiko, took the lead in proposing the“One Village One Product”development concept。“One Village One Product”The core of the development concept is people-oriented,Guide rural residents to know and discover themselves,Fully tap the resources of rural areas,Find the comparative advantage of the region,The aim is to encourage farmers to develop、Produce products with local characteristics,Promote Japanese agricultural products to the international market。With the Japanese government's“One Village One Product”Continuous improvement and active promotion of policies,Successfully promoted the development of Japanese agriculture。Japan's current“One Village One Product”The idea is more African、Recognition and adoption by many governments in the Americas,Significant effect in promoting agricultural and rural development。

  Spain:An innovative way to develop creative ornamental agriculture

  Spain's agricultural land accounts for13.8%,2nd in the EU,Gross agricultural output accounts for aboutGDPof2.5%,Mainly fruits and vegetables。is called“European fruit and vegetable garden”Spain, 60%The above fruits and vegetables are for export。On the basis that the export value of vegetables and fruits has already taken the lead in Europe,Spanish government proposes to focus on creativity,Develop creative ornamental agriculture,To improve the quality of agricultural development in Spain,Promoting further development of agricultural and rural areas in Spain。to this end,The Spanish government has launched a series of policy measures that combine agricultural planting and tourism to develop rural tourism。

  Pay attention to rural infrastructure construction。To provide tourists with walking tours、horse riding、gliding、mountaineering、Agricultural experience and other tourism project places,Spain builds castle hotel on historic castle、restaurant,the big farm、Manor re-planning and remodeling。also,The Spanish government has also taken the initiative to support traditional cultural activities such as bullfighting、Running of the Bulls、Tomato wars and other add agricultural elements,Create creative entertainment。These moves have contributed to the agricultural population that only accounts for the country's population4%of Spain produces more than seaside tourism,Also makes creative ornamental agriculture an important part of tourism in Spain。today,Spain continues to push、Deepen the development of creative ornamental agriculture based on innovation。First,The government continues to increase investment in special funds,For agricultural creative project research and development;second,In order to continuously meet the diversification of tourists、personalise、Specialized travel needs,Active promotion of Spanish-specific agricultural products such as wine、olive oil etc,Promoting Spanish agricultural products to the world。

  Ethiopia:Rural Governance Mechanism Based on Establishment of Rules and Regulations

  current,Ethiopia is actively improving the construction of rural governance mechanisms。endogenous in the mechanism“village politics”management mode、Membership system of rural agricultural cooperatives, etc.,In line with the local agricultural production technology level,Realize a high degree of autonomy of the villagers,mobilized farmers' enthusiasm for production。also,Under the institutional framework of the rural governance mechanism,rural agricultural cooperatives、labor rental market、Institutions and mechanisms such as bazaars have also been continuously improved。The rural governance model in Ethiopia is gradually changing,Self-management of farmers' agricultural production activities has been realized。It is worth pointing out that,The members of rural agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia are divided into general members and permanent members,Permanent members are elected by all members。In addition to the right to manage agricultural production activities, agricultural cooperatives,and the right to manage rural affairs,such as discussions on daily affairs in rural areas、decide etc.。

  (Author unit:CPC Shanghai Municipal Party School(Shanghai Administration Institute) Economic Management Teaching and Research Department)

(usda rural development eligibility website)source:China Social Science Network-Chinese Journal of Social Sciences author:Wang Shan

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