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Editor:Although the Internet is not an extra,But speculators trying to drill technology and rule vulnerabilities are still very people。The hyperlink in many news will appear when you click, then jump to other websites.,What happened to a hyperlink??Who is using those already“Dead”Hyperlink?

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In webpage news,Hyperlinks often appear as a supplemental information,Users can click on the product original text by clicking the hyperlink reading media。

But with the continuous accumulation of information data,Many hyperlinks on the network have been invalid,For example, sometimes click on the article a dozen years ago.,Give feedback“The page has disappeared”Tips。

Most users do not pay special attention to whether a hyperlink is still effective.,But on the network,Some people are simply searching for these long-awaited hyperlinks like thiefs.。

What happened to a hyperlink??Who is using those already“Dead”Hyperlink?The current full media will focus on those that have been invalid.,Compilation and analyze the troubles of invalid hyperlink experienced by foreign media,Trying to reveal the problem of the current news archive and huge gray benefits behind the invalid hyperlink。


According to a team of Harvard University Law《New York Times》Investigation,They found it in this newspaper553,693One hundred and 70,000 depth links in the article(Deeplink)already have25%Unable to use。When the user clicks on these depth links,The previous page has become a blank。[1]

Such a situation is called a link invalid(linkrot),Page will appear“404”Tips。

Depth link refers to channels that can guide external website pages,Users can enter a particular external page through this link。If you do not use depth link technology,The user needs to search for relevant content itself.。The depth link greatly reduces the path to the user.,In the content consumer scene in graphic,Basically, the depth link can be understood as our more familiar hyperlink。

And super chain changes invalid link,The main reason is the original content disappeared、Change or location changes,This makes the server unable to return a valid page。

Such as《Hollywood report》Be a former·DisneyCEORoy·Disney's wife published an article,And attach a link to a commemorative website,Readers can donate to charities to a memorial deepel in the site.。Later,His family closed the site。Although the website does not exist,but《Hollywood report》The cited hyperlink is still able to jump,Such hyperlinks become invalid links。

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The case where the hyperlink presentation in the WeChat public account is invalid, as the accumulation of the hyperlink year is more common,Because over time,The large number of websites quoted at the beginning may no longer be used.。

In pair《New York Times》This survey results show,Published on2018Year's articles have6%Hyperlink is invalid;and2008Annual article43%Invalid hyperlink;arrive1998year,This indicator actually reached72%High。Overall,53%There is at least an invalid hyperlink in the article,That is, there is at least one article in the two articles has an invalid link.。

The failure of hyperlink is also related to the type of article,There are also differences in the proportion of different sectors in an invalid link.。E.g,The lowest possible proportion of health segments,Powder than the average hyperlink17Percentage point;The invalid proportion of the tourist sector is the highest.,More than the average proportion17Percentage point。

In fact,,This hyperlink has not been rare in online life.。The full media is discussed in previous articles“Digital hamster”The phenomenon,That is, many netizens like to take various information.,This also includes various links。You must have such an experience,When you open the article you collect,There are always some deleted by the author or platform.。

In Weibo,This phenomenon is more common,The author surprised to find that he had already praised or forwarded more than half of the content that has become an invalid link.,Show only“This Weibo has been deleted”。

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“Feel sorry,This Weibo has been deleted by the author。”

Another situation in which the link is invalid is content transfer(Content Drift)。

When a hyperlink content is transferred, it means,When the user clicks the hyperlink,The page returned by the server is not the content that is incorporated.。

same,The situation of content transfer will also become more frequent as in the article time。Investigation mentioned,exist2019Annual article published,Only4%The hyperlink content has changed;and2009In the article, there is a quarter of the hyperlink content.。

Whether such a situation is only an example?Although the team is only《New York Times》This family is up to13Annual article investigation,butArchive professional《New York Times》,Its article hyperlink failure or content transfer is so common,Other smaller news agencies are probably more unauthorized。

Save news is not just to keep the original news or audio and video information,Because these contents are often stored in their own servers,Compared with,More tricky is the external information referenced in the article,That is, hyperlink。

External websites oriented by hyperlinks are not managed by relevant news organizations,The content of these sites can be modified or deleted by a third party。The consequences of it are not just the source of information or the loss of news context,More serious impact is,These hyperlinks may be used to guide unrelated content,Or is used for some improper profitables。

Catherine·Hansen and Nora·Paul is in them《For the future news:First release of history》The show is deep concerns about the current status of the current news archive。

from their perspective,The role played by the news is not just just the information.,More important is the characteristics of the times and people's lives.。[2]But as the digital process of the news industry is constantly,Journalism has vigorously promoted the advancement of the future, but he neglected to see it.。

two、Take up“Dead”Chain connection into a gray industry

Hyperlink“die”Two problems exposed:First, the storage of news can't get 100% hand,On the other hand, it is hidden from huge underground market behind the hyperlink.。

Because of copyright issues,News website requires the source of information referenced by hyperlink,But this makes the news website lack of control for the content points to the hyperlink.,This is a hidden danger for speculators using invalid hyperlinks.。Content transfer, etc.,Illegal suppliers can sink the original failure hyperlink,Reconnect to a new website,Use this to attract traffic、Make interests。

1. Store news dilemma

Compared to newspaper、Traditional information storage form such as tape,The storage of electronic news is undoubtedly more convenient。Then why news is stored in the electronic age, it will become a problem.?

To answer this question,We must first understand how news is stored in the traditional media era.。

Before digitization,The main form of news is newspaper、Broadcasting and TV。Broadcasting and TV programs are mainly stored by news agencies themselves.,The general media will have full-time staff to archive these original news,It acts like a librarian。

The preservation of newspapers involves a more complex process。As various institutions and individuals subscribe to newspapers,People also keep the original news when they buy the newspaper。Although an individual may keep a certain amount of newspapers out of interest,But such behavior is often not systematic。

The main third-party depository institutions are libraries large and small。The library has more space and professional librarians,Therefore, the newspaper can be preserved relatively more completely。It can be said,Newspaper storage is more diffuse,Except for the news organization itself,Third-party agencies will also be involved。

But with the increasing digitization of journalism,The Internet has become an important way of news dissemination。Electronic news seems to no longer need to be archived,because it was originally placed in a different folder on the server。

But there are differences between physical documents and digital documents.,Once a newspaper is published, it is difficult to change it,Digital documents are always changeable。In particular, channels such as hyperlinks leading to external websites,Whether it is modified or deleted depends on the third party,The media cannot directly manage it。

on the other hand,The neglect of news archives also shows a general trend in journalism——pursuit of speed。As Zhou Ruiming pointed out in the paper,Journalism mired in a race against itself,News production becomes an ever-accelerating process。[3]In the process of looking forward like this,It may seem out of place to focus on the news of the past。

Although people are starting to realize the problem,But for news organizations,whole、There are still many problems with keeping news independently,Copyright issues are undoubtedly at the core。How to both respect the copyright of third-party sources,At the same time, it can prevent it from being used by ulterior motives,This becomes the key to solving the problem。

One possible treatment is to backup the hyperlinked pages of the third party agency,If it is not possible to copy one by one,Also consider the form of screenshots。But it may give the news media too much power,enable it to directly copy other content sources;Furthermore,It also contributed to independence、The formation of a closed network ecosystem,Make the traffic always circulate inside the news site。

Third-party agencies generally do not allow media to borrow the content they produce to enhance media user stickiness。And once the hyperlink leads to an external website,the media has no control over its content。therefore,It's not easy to deal with。

2. The grey market behind hyperlinks

(Website Design and Development C ompany in Delhi)If the hyperlink in the article published by the media leads to a website that is completely out of control,That's a risk to media credibility,American media is suffering from this invalid hyperlink being tampered with,And there is a huge grey market behind it.。

(Website Design and Development C ompany in Delhi)Usually these hyperlinks lead to some profitable websites,Mostly similar to advertising traffic。

Its operation logic is roughly as follows:as mentioned earlier,Numerous hyperlinks in news sites are no longer available,But the links are still there and clickable;Some suppliers use this as an opportunity,Looking for broken links in news sites,Replace it with the website content your client needs。

Most of these tampered external websites are advertising in nature,such as promoting cheap hotels、Online consultation、Online payments even include online gambling, etc.。

Although people's interest in past news will gradually decline,But news on the internet won't be completely forgotten。via search engine,Users can recall past news stories at any time。when the past“memory”when awakened,Along with the old news are the hyperlinks that have been stolen。

When a user first discovers that the hyperlink has been tampered with an irrelevant ad,He may only feel that the advertisements on the Internet are really pervasive。but the second time、the third time?He may question the professionalism of news sites。Not to mention the high percentage of invalid hyperlinks,No one knows whether the next link to be clicked is its original content。

BuzzFeedNews for major US news sites andBBC's investigation found,These news sites suffer from tampering with hyperlinks,Among them, Forbes News was particularly affected。[4]

A Forbes spokesman said in a public statement,The site has removed the hyperlinks to the modified content,And actively look for measures to avoid hyperlink tampering。BBCpost a disclaimer on its website,claiming that it is not responsible for the content of external websites。

Providers of these tampering services mostly avoid direct oversight from the US or European countries,The service fee is often very high,The service fee for replacing a hyperlinked content from200arrive500U.S. dollars vary。

The act of replacing hyperlinks is a lot of black hatsSEOone of the technologies。SEO(Search Engine Optimization)Refers to search engine optimization techniques,It is mainly used to analyze the rules of how search engines rank,By understanding how search engines crawl internet pages、How to identify specific keywords and other techniques to improve a page's ranking in search engines has increased pageviews。[5]while black hatSEOIt is to increase the number of page views of the website by cheating,for short-term、quick economic benefits。

in order to confuse the real,Vendors sometimes even impersonate the original website publisher in an attempt to confuse users。E.g,one in DelhiSEOAgency has replaced Meghan in Forbes website·Mason(Megan Mason)At2015Some dead links in articles published in。Replacer with Megan·Matt(Megan Matt)republished an article in the name of,and link it to the website of a carpet cleaning company in San Diego。

News sites are not the only victims of these illegal profiteers,Major search engine sites are also suffering,black hat after allSEOwill make the search results unsatisfactory to the user's needs。When a user searches for a certain keyword in a search engine, all irrelevant advertisements and even spam are returned.,Users are bound to question the services that search engines can provide。

three、Avoid risk and don't give up food because of choking

From gray industry service providers big and small to their high pay for tampering with hyperlinks,Seemingly inconspicuous invalid hyperlinks hide a huge space of interest。So why not just remove the hyperlink??This will fundamentally prevent speculators from making profits through illegal channels。

The first is still a copyright issue。

Hyperlinks exist to allow media to legally use content from external websites,The use of hyperlinks can not only mark the source of the material,It is also possible to find the original data in the most convenient way。Although it is possible to indicate copyright by adding endnotes or other means,But hyperlinks are undoubtedly the more appropriate way。

The tampered hyperlinks also reflect the media's emphasis on copyright。Even deeply black hatSEOdisturbance,Most media also don't want to remove hyperlinks,Instead, try to use technology to make up for the current deficiencies。

Secondly, it also reflects the attitude of the media towards the network ecology。

As the author pointed out earlier,Articles without hyperlinks form a closed network ecosystem,Users can only browse the information inside the media on the website,There is also no connection between the different sites。

And hyperlinks just provide the possibility of connecting,Just a little,Users can browse pages from other channels。between different news,Even different news sites can be linked by hyperlinks。

One benefit of this is that,Relying on content quality among different media to attract audiences,Technology itself is not a barrier,Even both parties are happy to see the other produce better content。

In a word,Although there is a huge grey market behind broken hyperlinks,Although the actions of third-party speculators have created thorny problems for news sites,But the industry has not given up food because of choking,Media agencies are still trying to reduce potential risks by improving technology。

Tampered hyperlinks also remind us,Although the Internet is not a place outside the law,But there are still plenty of speculators trying to exploit technical and regulatory loopholes。Such as《New York Times》These hyperlinks quoted by relatively professional news media in content storage may be stolen by third parties,that may exist on other sites“trap”no doubt more。and these,are waiting for the platform、The media and relevant regulatory agencies work together to form a more rigorous prevention and treatment mechanism。

Reference link:

  3. Zhou Ruiming.Anchor Routine:“transformation”Temporality with News Innovation[J].news reporter,2020(02):21-31.
  5. Ma Xiaoling,Wu Yonghe.for search engine optimization(SEO)Research[J].intelligence magazine,2005(12):119-121.

author:Fasha;No public:all media(ID:quanmeipai)

(Website Design and Development C ompany in Delhi)This article is by @all media Originally published on Everyone is a Product Manager。without permission,Reprinting is prohibited

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