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2022.03.26

website development clayton

Christ Tutans1997Annual work《Innovator's dilemma》Famous,Yes“Subverting innovation”Theoretical starter。《Wall Street Journal》Commentary,he“Have a case teaching in a case(turned his life into a Case Study)”。2016year,He accepts in Beijing《Harvard Business Review》Chinese version of interview,Subverting innovation theory can expand,But the core does not change:Demand constant constant,Technology is just a means of discovering demand,Innovation will never go beyond humanity。

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(Image Source:《Harvard Business Review》Chinese Version2016year6Monthly)

2020year1moon23Day local evening,Harvard Business School Professor,“Subverting innovation”Theoretical founder Cleton·Christiston(ClaytonChristensen)Dr. Boston, Massachusetts, USA,Annual67age。From Harvard University to American Business and major media,All express his death。

Christ Tutans1997Year's work《Innovator's dilemma》Famous,Yes“Subverting innovation”Theoretical pioneer and the founder,I have selection of the most influential management thinkers in the world.。Bill·Gates、Steve·Jobs、Jeff·Global Science and Technology Giant, Besos,I have expressed my deep impact of Christine Sedimental innovation theory.。

In recent years,Despite stroke、Diabetes and cancer troubles,Christistan has been based on research and teaching line,Continuous new discussion。For many years,He is《Harvard Business Review》One of the highest yields。In the past5Year,He still continues to provide new articles,from2015Year old《What is subversive innovation》arrive2019year2Month《Open innovation》,Christiston continues to grind“Subverting innovation”Theoretical connotation,And expand its epitaxial,Look at the global reality,Especially the Chinese market。Innovation and development of Chinese companies such as Haier and Galanz,Its founders also expressed the inspiration of Professor Christ Tutans。

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past5Year,Professor Chrison received three times《Harvard Business Review》Chinese version interview,In2016year5Moon to Beijing,participate《Harvard Business Review》Chinese version of organization“Super open class”,Face-to-face communication with professors and entrepreneurs in China Business School,Awarded,And accepted《Harvard Business Review》Chinese version interview(Related reports)。

website development clayton(Website Development Clayton)Whether it is a student of Harvard College,Colleagues who have worked with him,Still his relatives and friends,People with Christien interact,More humble、Pinghe and tough styles。In addition to contributions to business and management,Cristan's work《How do you measure your life?》Thinking business, referring to the life,As a case with your personal experience,Help the world's key decision。

Professor Christans1moon23Day after death,《Harvard Business Review》、《Wall Street Journal》、CNN、And the students of the Harvard College have expressed their grief in a variety of ways.,Share him a little bit,in《Wall Street Journal》Commentary,Professor Christans“Have a case teaching in a case(turned his life into a Case Study)”。《Harvard Business Review》The Chinese version will launch this management master's commemorative album recently,To remember the master's life together with the reader friend,Heavy intention“Subverting innovation”How the series is affecting and applied to the rapid business world。

Business community

since1995Christine《Harvard Business Review》Since the subversive innovation,The theory successfully helped Intel's defense of potential threats from low-end personal computer industries。Substant Intel CompanyCEOAndy·Glov(Andy Grove)Once held in public speeches《Innovator's dilemma:Why new technology makes big companies fail》,Be called10The most important book you read during the year。When Christiston and Glov1999Year《Forbes》Cover,Commercial world is always rewritten。

Network flightCEORyd·Hasins(Reed Hastings)Share with company employees《Innovator's dilemma》,Steve·Jobs's biography writer,This book profoundly affects the co-founder of this apple.。Jeff·Besos requires all senior executives of Amazon2003Another copy of the year of Christinerson《Innovator's answer》。China Haier GroupCEOZhang Ruimin also shared many times in the speech,Learning subversive innovation(Conduct:Destructive innovation)Importance。

However, with the epidemic of subverting theory,Let Cristans are worried about,Subversion of innovative words are frequently abused and misinterpreel。“If we call any business success‘subversion’,Then, the company who climbed through different methods will be mistaken to take the same strategy.,This is very dangerous:Manager may mix and match each other,Finally, I can't achieve my ideal results.。”to this end,He oftenCEOOffice for class,Share the essentials of subversive innovation in person and executives,And discuss the challenges facing。

2015year12moon,Christien is again《Harvard Business Review》Post article,Re-emphasizing the definition of subversive innovation and the conditions that must be met——Real subversion innovation is often only available for the niche market,Easy to be ignored by big companies。New enterprises focus on the subdivision demand ignored in the company,By providing more suitable、Lower price products and services,Gradually in the market。When the customer of the mass market began to receive the products and services provided by new companies to receive new companies,Disruptive。

(Website Development Clayton)The gentle giant in the eyes of teachers and students

(Website Development Clayton)Christ Tutans is deeply worn by Harvard Business School,I have been rated as one of the most popular professors of Harvard Business School.。Harvard Business School Dean Nitin·Nororia(Nitin Nohria)exist1moon24Day representation,Clayton·Cristan's death is heartbroken:“The whole Harvard community will deeply remember him.,Anyone who came into contact with Clayton,Nothing feels his wisdom and kindness,His heritage will last forever,His teaching and research fundamentally changed business practices,Its affects the number of teachers and students。”

Multi-Harvard Business School alumni and partners have been twitter andWeChatWaiting for social media to publish Changwen to remember this causing tutor,Author and《Harvard Business Review》Chinese version of colleagues are no exception。Just like Harvard Business School Alumni、Christine Society Joint Founder Michael·Horn(Michael Horn)Written,Christ Tambamon is a“Gentle giant”,His words are driven by good music,He always thinks,Harvest from the students,More than he gives students。So far, the author is still clear.4Interview with Christ Time。His illness has not been cured,Insulin pumps to persist for a few hours to teach,Speech with the speech of the Long Dragon。Take a photo,Height1Meter9He will bent down the waist,Make sure that each audience can take a satisfactory photo。

As《Wall Street Journal》Title,Christ Tambae truly turned his life into a case teaching。More and moreMBAStudents think that commercial significance is limited to profits、Trading and investment,This“Unfortunate and short-sighted”。Christ Tampon urges business school students to use time how to plan a better life and clear goals,“Learn to be more than a harvest than the completion of the transaction”。

As he is《How to measure your life》Written in a book:“Although many people may measure life through statistics,For example, the number of rewards,Or bank accumulated dollars, etc.。But I start to understand,The only indicator that really affects my life is what I can help.,One by one。When I saw God,We will talk about those because I become more confident.,Because of my pain,Regardless of how。This is an important indicator to measure my life.。”

Arts |《Harvard Business Review》Chinese version of the writer Liu Wei

edit | He Gang

Clayton·Christ Tutans

website development clayton
  • (Website Development Clayton)1952year4moon6Born in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA,Father is a department store manager,Mother is a high school English teacher

  • Devout Mormon,Actively participate in church activities

  • (Website Development Clayton)In the early years, in Korea2Annual missionary career,Korean fluent

  • Bachelor of Economics in Yang Benhan University

  • 1979Harvard Business SchoolMBABachelor of Science

  • 1992Annual return to Harvard Business SchoolDBADegree and serve as a professor of Harvard Business School

  • 1997Year published work《Innovator's dilemma》Best business reading list

  • Rod scholar,height6foot8inch,Once is the neighborhood of the Oxford University basketball team

  • 9Author's author,These include disruptive innovation in medical and education industries

  • Once ambition is becoming《Wall Street Journal》Reporter

  • In Boston Consulting(BCG)Work

  • Found and invest many companies,Including consulting companies and wiskins

  • 2020year1moon23Lack of life

  • With Christine·Qunn(ChristineQuinn)Give birth5Child

(Website Development Clayton)Trunked Christien:“Innovation will not surpass the human itself”

website development clayton

2015Last year,《Harvard Business Review》Closeton·Christiston(Clayton Christensen)Relational subversion theory:《What is subversive innovation》。Since the world,This theory is quite questionable。Especially in the new technology、Industry border is getting obscuring、Commercial world rapidly change today,Many phenomena cannot be covered by subversive innovation theory。《What is subversive innovation》It was born in this background.。In this article,We are not difficult to find,Christ Tutans never stopped grinding the theory。2016year5moon,Christistan visits Beijing to participate《Harvard Business Review》Chinese version“Super open class”,use this opportunity,This journal conducted Christ Tambison4Second interview since the year。

(Website Development Clayton)Despite the gulf of countless management masters and ideas by the outside world,But Cristans I don't“Cool cold”。Compared with its theory,His modest and optimistic character and high dedication and self-province,More infectious。Although it is suffering from disease,Even due to the syndrome of the stroke,But no matter what interview、Speech or talk about communication,Christistan is always patiently interacting with everyone。Young colleague nickname this journal, he is“Kle”,He also took the initiative to ask everyone's work lunch,Trying to help us with subverting theory to analyze China“Leftwoman”question。

Just as the late managers Warren·Ben Nice said,The two cores of leadership are the ability to emotions and constant learning.。In the interview,We found that Christian Christuson expanded the outer edge of subversive innovation theory,Increase the type of innovation,Redefile the relationship between technology and innovation。But facing technology challenges to business,He is full of confidence in the kernel of his theory:Demand constant constant,Technology is just a means of discovering demand,Innovation will never go beyond humanity。also,In the interview,Christine is for many popular companies(Apple、Samsung、Uber、Airbnb)Review。When talking about Chinese enterprises,He focused on Huawei and Ali,And he was considered to be a subversed Haier,It is likely to be the next subverted company。

Subversion of innovation is not critical

Christine Sense,Also love to talk about theory。He said many times,He won't give specific answers for any problem.,But you can specify the idea of passing the answer to the answer。He quoted the famous American philosopher Thomas·Kusn(Thomas Kuhn)Words,When you find some of the theoretical unable to explain“Abnormal phenomenon”Time,I have reached the theory of improvement.。At Harvard Business School,His requirements for students are,Cases that are ready to discover the theoretical theory,Continuous improvement、Rich research。

(Website Development Clayton)Years ago,Some students tell him,Disruptory innovation theory does not apply to hotel industry。20century50Era,Holiday Hotel(Holiday Inn)Enter the market from the bottom end,But did not move to the upper end of the market。Because the hotel industry does not have any core technology that can move upwards。but AirbnbSubvert the hotel industry by changing the business model,Marriott is no more。

Christinean Chen,In the first work,The subversive innovation he discussed is more technical,But also include innovation of business model,Also included in new business models and technologies。“We have been thinking that it is not subversion.,From providing better products,Premature is sustainable innovation。But then we have also seen the new business model innovation,Most of the taxi industry is operated by large companies,Have a large number of fixed assets,High maintenance cost,So you must operate in staying up again and night.。But there is no fixed asset,Traditional taxi industry can't enter。Many subversive innovations are dominated by business models,for exampleAirbnb。”

Innovation cannot exceed humans

For the company,The significance of subversive innovation theory is,How to predict competitors?。However, in technology democratization、Cross-border competition and fast becomes a normal today,Competition is becoming more difficult to predict,Subverting innovation theory partially failed?The answer of Christ Tutans is negative,Because the foundation of subversion of innovative theory has not changed,His so-calledJTBDModel(“Job-to-be-done”,Task)。From ancient Rome to the Internet,“transportation”This task has not changed any changes.,Technical means may become a train from the carriage,Retraway。Technology unpredictable,But the task of treatment can be predicted。As long as the company always focuses on discovering customers' work tasks,Can predict that the technology will come from?。

But if you think the company's business is the technology of the train or aircraft itself,It will always be surprised to surprise new technologies that I don't know where to come out.。Waiting for the task forever,Sometimes you feel“new task”,Just didn't find it before。This summer Christistan is planned to publish a detailed elaborationJTBDModel work,Tell readers how to predict the task of treatment。“When you read the book,I will believe what I said.,We are very important to have anxiety because of the emergency innovation of catching up.。”He said。

Christ Tutans explained this issue from another dimension——“Interconnection and modularity”(interdependence and modularity)。Products can be divided into two major classes according to the structure:One type is the structure of each other,Want to change one of them,You must change the other parts;Another type is a modular structure,Changing one of the parts will not affect other parts。Early in any industry,Product structure is always interdependent,It takes a long time from transition from interconnected structures to modular structure.,But after the formation of the module,Development speed will increase significantly。In the smartphone industry,Blackberry system is extremely high,So no application cannot be developed。Apple has improved the degree of modularization of the product,Accelerate the speed of developing applications,butiPhoneThe degree of interdependence of design itself is still high,Its platform development time consuming3year。Samsung mobile phone,Android system achieves high modularization,The time for developing the application is shortened to only3Month。“Silicon Valley has a lot of rapid development of high-tech innovation,It is essentially more and more modules and more and fewer interconnections.。therefore,I never think,Innovation will transcend human own。”

The following is the fine version of our dialogue with the professor of Christien:

(Website Development Clayton)HBRC:You will insist on many years ago.,Apple's business model is not ideal,But now Apple's performance is exceeded.,Why are you?iPhonePrediction?

gram:Apple is very smart,They hope to find the work of the people in the brain through marketing,But in fact, there is no product that can accomplish the task in their brain.。Apple is in connection with each other and the modular structure,The kernel of its product is interrelated,But Apple created a modular first river for smartphones.,Let people start adding applications on Apple mobile phones。Better thanIBMOpen upPCModular era of machine,Google brought modular Android system。Although Apple has won most profits now,But Android90%Mobile phone operating system。If Apple continues to take a high price strategy,Its market share will decrease(Deadline,Apple Global President Cook delivered a speech,thinkiPhoneExtensive price——Translator's note)。The final trend is Apple to sell a small number of mobile phone high prices.,Samsung sells a lot of mobile phone but the profit is very thin。Two situations sound very bad,But this is why I predict Apple will not win.,The final winning is always modular。

HBRC:Not long ago,《Harvard Business Review》There is a detailed discussion for the lack of breakthrough innovation in contemporary China.,How do you view China's lack of innovative ability??

gram:This kind of statement is fair,The key is whether the business can be based on his own situation,Conduct proper innovation。Can use the previous Japanese,As a reference for China's status quo。20century60、70Era,Toyota's new car design is always behind the European and American brands.。However, Toyota has invented it in a known person.“Toyota production system”——Vehicle is not awkward、No stock、Extremely low cost。Americans want to spend60Day production car,Toyota Automotive2Heaven can complete。Is it not as good as Toyota's product design?,So Toyota car does not innovate??The earliest subversive innovation theory has only two innovations,But now it has been developed4Innovation。The first is the potential product(Where is the task where and how to complete this task?);The second is subversive innovation:(Let you be simpler、Complete task in a cheap manner);The third is sustainability innovation(Let the product become better);The fourth is to use less to create more efficiency innovation,This is the current situation of Toyota。So although Toyota's product innovation has ended,But its continuous innovation and efficiency innovation are still continuing。

HBRC:How do you evaluate the current situation of China's innovation??

(Website Development Clayton)gram:Let me talk about Huawei。Huawei experienced imitation of product innovation,But they are in terms of imitation and process innovation.,Now product performance and Cisco。I guess Huawei must read the theory of subversive innovation,But they are hesitant to create an independent innovation department。Alibaba is also like this,Alipay has formed direct competition and commercial banks.。

HBRC:I heard that you are alsofocus onHaier?

(Website Development Clayton)gram:Yes,My child is in the university, I am using Haier's refrigerator.。Haier is a typical subverstrist from high-end movement from the low end.。But now Indian companiesGodrejSubpering Haier from the low end of the market。Haier and other traditional electrical industries use compressor cooling,andGodrejUse Peltel Post(Peltier effect)Effect,Water differences in both ends of the electrode。GodrejRefrigerator size smaller、Lower cost,Only need49Dollar。Although the lowest temperature is only4Celsius,But foot can be used to save food。Haier's choice is,Is back to the market low endGodrejThis kind of opponent competition,Or continuous innovation movement to the upper end of the market。If they want to go back to the low end,Need very different business models and values。

(Website Development Clayton)HBRC:Seem,The electric motorcycle on our street is a typical subversive innovation.,However, factors such as regulatory and regulations may affect corporate innovation.。For example“Ban”Such regulation,How will companies deal with?

gram:In many circumstances,The purpose of supervision is to protect the company,Instead of protecting the safety of consumers。In history,Which city has caused congestion due to bicycle?Be no onefocus onBicycle security problem。There are similar situations in all walks of life.,Once the new adult began and the front of the person,There will often be regulations。Innovator,You can only take a roundabout strategy,Can start from rural areas,Will not cause too much security concerns;Or cooperate with regulators to formulate rules,For example, it is not possible to take a motorway.,How much speed limit is limited。

HBRC:You also predict that traditional media will be subversive,But the content of the new media is still from traditional media.,If the traditional media is submerged,Where is the professional news practitioner??

(Website Development Clayton)gram:Observing is very accurate,But the subversive is like this,Subvers have little experience and technologies, Subversion and technology itself does not matter。The application of transistors begins with military,Then price gradually decrease,quiltSonyUsed to produce Walkman,SonyThe success continued20year,But its success is not technological innovation but business model and distribution channel innovation。New media use technology to obtain traditional media content,It can be said to be a crime,It must be clearly separated from the old two media.。The key to the management of new media is to create more and more convenient communication channels,To promote growth。It is because of more and more communication channels,Time to read business news is growing rapidly。

HBRC:With the work of entrepreneurship,Business schools near Silicon Valley in the West Coast have highly catching Harvard、Wharton and other old name,How do you think?

gram:Harvard and Stanford can be said to be the representative of these two major business schools.。When Harvard University creates management education,Business school is still a new field,Equivalent to the interconnected structure we mentioned,Must have a large number of solid research,There is enough teaching resources。Harvard Business School integrates the integration capabilities of various resources and,Tell the student's business world through case teaching。Now the technology allows anyone to see the case of Harvard Business College online.,Honest people are willing to pay for this,Unhearthest people will not,HBRThe article is also true。The propagation of this content allows the business school to form a module。The teaching staff of Stanford,Its research theme has no correlation and logic。But Stanford has sufficient funds to make teachers to study anything as they want.。In the past,Teaching teaching is no longer carried out by scholars,Instead, it has been a week to teach the Silicon Valley executive for teaching a day.。Stanford is a module,Harvard is interrelated。

Harvard College is doing,Is the traditional business school education and newly developed online teaching projectHBXDistinguish,HBXModularize,Let the practitioner teaching,Let researchers can study as interested。I think Harvard Business School should continue to study,Development best management theory,No one thinks that Stanford is conducting real management theory,The most affected in the management25Middle6Harvard,No one from Stanford。Stanford is used to get capital,Funny people,Place of entrepreneurship together,Strictly speaking,Not considered business school。People who go to Stanford are not interested in research itself.,You can really learn how to work in Harvard。

HBRC:Time to make a hero,Will there be a second Christien??

gram:I hope there is no(laugh),Compared with other people who are widely respected,I am not the smartest,But for some reason,I have a unique way of thinking:What is theory?Why is it very important??How to build and apply a theory?Because theory is an explanation of causal relationships:From an angle,Managers and everyone are the theoretical consumers。Every action,Because I believe,DoneA,So can causeBthe process of。Every time we plan,Because I believe this plan can make us success。TowardsChristine (Christian New Year's wife)Marriage,I am also using theory:If I asked the way,She will sayyes。So I found that the first two theories failed.,The third theory is successful.。I firmly believe,If everyone carefully treats theory,They will affect。

Arts |《Harvard Business Review》Chinese version of the writer Liu Wei

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(Website Development Clayton)This article is originally《Harvard Business Review》Chinese Version2016year6Monthly

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